24 April 2008

Elective Outcome#2 Sex and Gender (Adavanced Mastery Endeavour)

Define sex and provide an example of a characteristic based in sex differences.

There are many obvious concepts which allow one person to describe the individual differences from another. But there is a main sign which we first of all always pay attention- is sex. Division of people into men and women is globally and invariant in relation to a historical stage, national specificity, cultural features.

Sex – is the biological concept of being male or female. Physiological sexual differences between men and women can range from types of made gametes (different quantity X and Y chromosomes ) endocrine glands which produce different hormones, genitals, and sexual dimorphic bodies to more disputable and arguable claims based in a sex , which mean distinctions in a brain structure and individuality being based in sex dissimilarity. It is obvious, that distinctions on sex are given the person from a birth and the first that the doctor speaks to mother after a birth of the child, only have looked on external sexual features (the girl a-vagina, the boy - a penis) – “You have the girl!”, or ”You have the boy!”.

Both sex are similar on variety of physiological characteristics. At the same age boys and girls start to sit, go, at them a teeth is cut. But distinctions are much more. It is well –known fact that usually are born more boys than girls, but already by the end of the first year of a life their number is equalized, and then in all generations number of women steadily though in different percent, exceeds number of men. The man's brain weighs on 200 grammes more than the female. At men the sexual maturity attacks 2 years later, men on the average for 5 years die earlier. Men earlier become grey and bald, lose hearing faster and wearing glasses , at them clearness of coordination of movements earlier vanishes, memory worsens, and there are earlier problems with sex. Men are more difficult for calming and resulting in feelings. On the other hand, the left hemisphere (the formal logic) at men is developed better, and the man's hormone — testosterone — provides ability immediately to concentrate mind, feelings and will on a certain subject. Favourite colour of the man more often red — colour of a victory, and at women — blue — colour of harmony and reliability.

Dominance, aggression, resoluteness are considered as man's psychological properties, while tenderness, softness, bashfulness — female; though nobody undertakes to assert, that there are no bashful men and aggressive women. Certainly, there are the physiological processes which do not have analogues at an opposite sex, for example, pregnancy , but if there is a possibility to change sex or to make cloning in general there are no unequivocal signs, properties and the processes specifying in the defined sex. But, not looking at presence of signs of both sex at each person and the genetics and medicine achievement, each person in norm — either the man, or the woman

Define gender and provide an example of a characteristic based in gender differences

Gender – cultural concept and socially based part of to be the man or the woman or another (the third gender, in some cultures). There are many cultural different types of men and women, such as gender identities, gender roles, gender belief, gender norms, and they can change from culture to culture. In our society today, men and women carry out clearly various roles which are based on nothing more than their biological differences. Though these roles do not remain for everyone individual, the majority of people live according to these extremely widespread roles.

Gender roles can be defined as a number of norms of behavior and characteristics which are standard for each gender in a society. Gender role stereotypes widely keep beliefs about those norms of behavior and characteristics, therefore stereotypes in the big degree become roles. The society compels people in certain roles simply by expecting, that those roles are inherent and leading to their execution. For example, the roles prevalent in our society prescribe that men should be domineering, aggressive, and superior at the math and sciences, should become successful in their careers, and should control and suppress their feelings. Women, on the other hand, should be obedient, nurturing, gentle, to be successful in languages and the humanities, emotional, and desirous of nothing more than a happy family and the husband to provide for her while it remains at home and is in charge of housekeeping.

Apply the concepts of sex and gender to at least one example.

The biological changes occurring in a body of the man, are gradual, barely to recognize and do not possess ability cardinally to change his life. The woman lives on internal clocks, which cannot be stopped and furthermore to bring. Unlike the man stages of their corporal changes revolutionary, are irreversible, and it cannot make later that did not in time at certain age (in culture it has found reflexion that «the first love», as a rule, is described as love of the man, and «last love» — love of the woman). Both sex estimate each other from the point of view of external appeal, but to the woman corporal appeal and furthermore the beauty or ugliness, has greater psychological value and the big social consequences, than for the man. Any problems of a corporality: abortion, virginity, pregnancy have for the woman not only physical, but also socially-psychological value. That is the corporality influences mentality and men and women, but the different corporality creates different problems.

. Nevertheless , we not simply are born boys and girls, but also we become them according to gender stereotypes penetrating a life in a civil society. The merits of case that we men and women not because we are born with certain bodies, but we men and women because in culture are present institute of the man and the woman, (including both sex, and gender). There are imitated courage and feminity … and thanks to that they are carried out again and again, man's and female again and are again reproduced. Gender role a set of demanded and expected samples of behaviors for men and women.

Expectations and belief concerning correct distribution and execution of roles influence behavior of men and women. In any human society to different sexes children concern differently and wait from them for a specific mental constitution and behavior. The name, clothes, a hairdress, toys etc. underline this specificity. For instance, parents consider, that the boy should be: strong, active, constrained and successful; that the girl should be: fragile, tender, thrifty. Psychologists notice, that gender socialization gives to girls "roots", and boys — "wings". As already the first sight of parents at the child contains stereotypic installations so far as we do not know, what psychological lines are congenital, and what got. For example, it is known, that girls start to speak earlier, but there is it because, that mothers talk to girls, than with boys or because this genetically set property of women, is not known more. In any case parents appear the first samples of sexual behavior for the child, besides set and constantly reproduce stereotypic models of reactions and acts.

Discuss why the sex/gender dichotomy is useful or not.

Sex/gender dichotomy is, definitely useful for our society because it allows to understand how much of the difference between men and women is based in natural, innate biological factors and how much of it is based in cultural factors. It allows people to understand each other easier, and to see in each person individuality and does not consider them as only sexual object. It also does people by more tolerant to different sexual orientations, so that is very important for modern society.

.In a modern science disputes between supporters which consider that almost all distinctions in behavior and motivation of men and women follow from genetics or biology laws, and those who considers, that a sex and all with it associating, have exclusively cultural and sociohistorical nature.

The biological view of gender roles and gender beliefs, states that the differentiated gender roles which exist in our society are the products of our evolution, and are inseparably connect with abilities conventional in one gender or the other which are determined biologically. The roles enjoin for each sex are based on physical abilities and properties of that sex, such as intellect, brain lateralization, and differing of sexual hormones levels. This faith was the widespread one throughout history, and has only lately been challenged. Implicit within this view is the belief that these roles are both desirous and incontrovertible. Ways with which this view could be proved, include looking on gender role similarities between animals and people, and investigative of sexual distinctions among infants. If, essential sexual role lines are found between animals and people, or if babies are actually found to show the lines traditionally appointed to their gender, it could specify to the fact, that such abilities and roles are biologically defined.

The statement, that sexual roles are biological and accordingly unchanging, can be rejected the simple evident fact, that sexual roles, even within our society, have changed and in process of changing. Women who as long trusted, were incapable to apply for "man's" trades (as examples are the policeman, the military man, truck driver) now successfully carry out the functions , and often they even is more professional than men. Let’s us to take other example : politics and the politicians where there were exclusively men earlier, but now we observe fast growth of quantity of women politicians which hold key posts in many countries. For example in Ukraine now the Prime minister is the woman , and , by the way, very successful and authoritative politician. Besides, women are in process of a belief confutation, that they should be happy with a family and children, but actually many are happier without them.

Establish your own position regarding the influence of sex/gender.

In my opinion, concept of sex and gender has extraordinary influence in our life. I would like to stop on gender stereotypes which have a main role in mutual relations of female and male. Stereotypes in thinking and understanding of the various phenomena of our life are congenital from all of us, but the unfaltering, and it seems to me essential, it is gender stereotypes

According to classical distribution of a role between the man and the woman , probably to tell that the man is directed on a gain of the world and the woman is directed on a gain of the man, which means a gain of the man's world and the man in this world. In the image stereotypic man qualities are, first, correlating with activity: the enterprise, aspiration to achievement of the purpose and on a competition, propensity to adventurism, resoluteness, inertia, bravery, self-examination, trust of forces, to desire to be the original, ability to be engaged in commerce. To women refuse in possession of these qualities - it is considered it passivity, indecision, care, care of observance of norms is more inherent, the conformism is attributed

Obviously that gender stereotypes are very unalterable and , therefore , take part in creation of system of social relations, more precisely, in designing of a gender order. Stereotypes not only establish an inequality- they justify it. In consideration of it is necessary to note one more basic function of gender stereotypes – legitimization of the power. Stereotypes should be proved constantly as authoritative relations, and also should be proved constantly.

On the one hand, we can consider that gender stereotypes is positive phenomenon. Obviously it is valid as a result of gradual acquisition moral gender stereotypes the person starts to understand faster relationship between gender, in it the established views not only about images of the man and the woman (characteristic moral qualities etc.) , but also and about those roles which the person and the woman should play at society. But on the other hand, too big gender stereotypification cause damaging effects. So , it is necessary to note that championed roles are restricting and damaging to all involved men and women similarly, since time when they are children. These views keep because our sexual roles are exclusively product of a society in which we live, and they are incompatible with the reality of individual persons and are painful and stressful for many people, and also hurt them as well as other forms of harassment and stereotyping.

1 comment:

Matt Archer said...

Fantastic post Highlander. I wish I had more time to comment.

You've demonstrated ADVANCED mastery of the Sex and Gender learning unit.