24 April 2008

Elective Outcome#2 Sex and Gender (Adavanced Mastery Endeavour)

Define sex and provide an example of a characteristic based in sex differences.

There are many obvious concepts which allow one person to describe the individual differences from another. But there is a main sign which we first of all always pay attention- is sex. Division of people into men and women is globally and invariant in relation to a historical stage, national specificity, cultural features.

Sex – is the biological concept of being male or female. Physiological sexual differences between men and women can range from types of made gametes (different quantity X and Y chromosomes ) endocrine glands which produce different hormones, genitals, and sexual dimorphic bodies to more disputable and arguable claims based in a sex , which mean distinctions in a brain structure and individuality being based in sex dissimilarity. It is obvious, that distinctions on sex are given the person from a birth and the first that the doctor speaks to mother after a birth of the child, only have looked on external sexual features (the girl a-vagina, the boy - a penis) – “You have the girl!”, or ”You have the boy!”.

Both sex are similar on variety of physiological characteristics. At the same age boys and girls start to sit, go, at them a teeth is cut. But distinctions are much more. It is well –known fact that usually are born more boys than girls, but already by the end of the first year of a life their number is equalized, and then in all generations number of women steadily though in different percent, exceeds number of men. The man's brain weighs on 200 grammes more than the female. At men the sexual maturity attacks 2 years later, men on the average for 5 years die earlier. Men earlier become grey and bald, lose hearing faster and wearing glasses , at them clearness of coordination of movements earlier vanishes, memory worsens, and there are earlier problems with sex. Men are more difficult for calming and resulting in feelings. On the other hand, the left hemisphere (the formal logic) at men is developed better, and the man's hormone — testosterone — provides ability immediately to concentrate mind, feelings and will on a certain subject. Favourite colour of the man more often red — colour of a victory, and at women — blue — colour of harmony and reliability.

Dominance, aggression, resoluteness are considered as man's psychological properties, while tenderness, softness, bashfulness — female; though nobody undertakes to assert, that there are no bashful men and aggressive women. Certainly, there are the physiological processes which do not have analogues at an opposite sex, for example, pregnancy , but if there is a possibility to change sex or to make cloning in general there are no unequivocal signs, properties and the processes specifying in the defined sex. But, not looking at presence of signs of both sex at each person and the genetics and medicine achievement, each person in norm — either the man, or the woman

Define gender and provide an example of a characteristic based in gender differences

Gender – cultural concept and socially based part of to be the man or the woman or another (the third gender, in some cultures). There are many cultural different types of men and women, such as gender identities, gender roles, gender belief, gender norms, and they can change from culture to culture. In our society today, men and women carry out clearly various roles which are based on nothing more than their biological differences. Though these roles do not remain for everyone individual, the majority of people live according to these extremely widespread roles.

Gender roles can be defined as a number of norms of behavior and characteristics which are standard for each gender in a society. Gender role stereotypes widely keep beliefs about those norms of behavior and characteristics, therefore stereotypes in the big degree become roles. The society compels people in certain roles simply by expecting, that those roles are inherent and leading to their execution. For example, the roles prevalent in our society prescribe that men should be domineering, aggressive, and superior at the math and sciences, should become successful in their careers, and should control and suppress their feelings. Women, on the other hand, should be obedient, nurturing, gentle, to be successful in languages and the humanities, emotional, and desirous of nothing more than a happy family and the husband to provide for her while it remains at home and is in charge of housekeeping.

Apply the concepts of sex and gender to at least one example.

The biological changes occurring in a body of the man, are gradual, barely to recognize and do not possess ability cardinally to change his life. The woman lives on internal clocks, which cannot be stopped and furthermore to bring. Unlike the man stages of their corporal changes revolutionary, are irreversible, and it cannot make later that did not in time at certain age (in culture it has found reflexion that «the first love», as a rule, is described as love of the man, and «last love» — love of the woman). Both sex estimate each other from the point of view of external appeal, but to the woman corporal appeal and furthermore the beauty or ugliness, has greater psychological value and the big social consequences, than for the man. Any problems of a corporality: abortion, virginity, pregnancy have for the woman not only physical, but also socially-psychological value. That is the corporality influences mentality and men and women, but the different corporality creates different problems.

. Nevertheless , we not simply are born boys and girls, but also we become them according to gender stereotypes penetrating a life in a civil society. The merits of case that we men and women not because we are born with certain bodies, but we men and women because in culture are present institute of the man and the woman, (including both sex, and gender). There are imitated courage and feminity … and thanks to that they are carried out again and again, man's and female again and are again reproduced. Gender role a set of demanded and expected samples of behaviors for men and women.

Expectations and belief concerning correct distribution and execution of roles influence behavior of men and women. In any human society to different sexes children concern differently and wait from them for a specific mental constitution and behavior. The name, clothes, a hairdress, toys etc. underline this specificity. For instance, parents consider, that the boy should be: strong, active, constrained and successful; that the girl should be: fragile, tender, thrifty. Psychologists notice, that gender socialization gives to girls "roots", and boys — "wings". As already the first sight of parents at the child contains stereotypic installations so far as we do not know, what psychological lines are congenital, and what got. For example, it is known, that girls start to speak earlier, but there is it because, that mothers talk to girls, than with boys or because this genetically set property of women, is not known more. In any case parents appear the first samples of sexual behavior for the child, besides set and constantly reproduce stereotypic models of reactions and acts.

Discuss why the sex/gender dichotomy is useful or not.

Sex/gender dichotomy is, definitely useful for our society because it allows to understand how much of the difference between men and women is based in natural, innate biological factors and how much of it is based in cultural factors. It allows people to understand each other easier, and to see in each person individuality and does not consider them as only sexual object. It also does people by more tolerant to different sexual orientations, so that is very important for modern society.

.In a modern science disputes between supporters which consider that almost all distinctions in behavior and motivation of men and women follow from genetics or biology laws, and those who considers, that a sex and all with it associating, have exclusively cultural and sociohistorical nature.

The biological view of gender roles and gender beliefs, states that the differentiated gender roles which exist in our society are the products of our evolution, and are inseparably connect with abilities conventional in one gender or the other which are determined biologically. The roles enjoin for each sex are based on physical abilities and properties of that sex, such as intellect, brain lateralization, and differing of sexual hormones levels. This faith was the widespread one throughout history, and has only lately been challenged. Implicit within this view is the belief that these roles are both desirous and incontrovertible. Ways with which this view could be proved, include looking on gender role similarities between animals and people, and investigative of sexual distinctions among infants. If, essential sexual role lines are found between animals and people, or if babies are actually found to show the lines traditionally appointed to their gender, it could specify to the fact, that such abilities and roles are biologically defined.

The statement, that sexual roles are biological and accordingly unchanging, can be rejected the simple evident fact, that sexual roles, even within our society, have changed and in process of changing. Women who as long trusted, were incapable to apply for "man's" trades (as examples are the policeman, the military man, truck driver) now successfully carry out the functions , and often they even is more professional than men. Let’s us to take other example : politics and the politicians where there were exclusively men earlier, but now we observe fast growth of quantity of women politicians which hold key posts in many countries. For example in Ukraine now the Prime minister is the woman , and , by the way, very successful and authoritative politician. Besides, women are in process of a belief confutation, that they should be happy with a family and children, but actually many are happier without them.

Establish your own position regarding the influence of sex/gender.

In my opinion, concept of sex and gender has extraordinary influence in our life. I would like to stop on gender stereotypes which have a main role in mutual relations of female and male. Stereotypes in thinking and understanding of the various phenomena of our life are congenital from all of us, but the unfaltering, and it seems to me essential, it is gender stereotypes

According to classical distribution of a role between the man and the woman , probably to tell that the man is directed on a gain of the world and the woman is directed on a gain of the man, which means a gain of the man's world and the man in this world. In the image stereotypic man qualities are, first, correlating with activity: the enterprise, aspiration to achievement of the purpose and on a competition, propensity to adventurism, resoluteness, inertia, bravery, self-examination, trust of forces, to desire to be the original, ability to be engaged in commerce. To women refuse in possession of these qualities - it is considered it passivity, indecision, care, care of observance of norms is more inherent, the conformism is attributed

Obviously that gender stereotypes are very unalterable and , therefore , take part in creation of system of social relations, more precisely, in designing of a gender order. Stereotypes not only establish an inequality- they justify it. In consideration of it is necessary to note one more basic function of gender stereotypes – legitimization of the power. Stereotypes should be proved constantly as authoritative relations, and also should be proved constantly.

On the one hand, we can consider that gender stereotypes is positive phenomenon. Obviously it is valid as a result of gradual acquisition moral gender stereotypes the person starts to understand faster relationship between gender, in it the established views not only about images of the man and the woman (characteristic moral qualities etc.) , but also and about those roles which the person and the woman should play at society. But on the other hand, too big gender stereotypification cause damaging effects. So , it is necessary to note that championed roles are restricting and damaging to all involved men and women similarly, since time when they are children. These views keep because our sexual roles are exclusively product of a society in which we live, and they are incompatible with the reality of individual persons and are painful and stressful for many people, and also hurt them as well as other forms of harassment and stereotyping.

07 April 2008

Elective Outcome # 1 Self and Identity . (Advanced Mastery Endevour)

Explain and examine the concepts of identity and self .

The cultural approach to self and identity begins with that that there is an inverse relationship between self and a society. Self influences a society through actions of individuals, thus creating groups, networks, and establishments. And, mutually, the society influences on self through its shared language and values which allow the person to take a role of another to participate in social interaction, and to reflect over as an object. This process reflexivity is the centre of individuality.

Identity it is often described as a recognition of its person or it is direct as a discrete entity . But, in cultural terms, this definition always incorporates with connection to some kind of group or a category of people is established in the cultural context. Thus, we are teachers and students; we are men and women; we are top, average or the lowest a class; we – collection of various categories of people who exist in our world. In this sense, process of an establishment of these categories, defining, that they mean, and then transfer to their people plays the critical role in terms of, how we come to understand us and our roles in the world.

Anthropological perspective of identity then, should explore the distinctive processes by which categories identity are generated and as people reach to be enclosed to them. We have concentrated on culture as on active process and we understand these categories as identification process instead of seeing these relations between us and identity as static and inevitable. For the majority of us, social interaction is not realized and automatic. We contact other people since time when we are born. The status and roles are the cores to social dialogue. The status addresses to ­categories of various kinds of people which co-operate. The majority of statuses names, thus we as can hear, speak things as, "He is President Ford," or "She is an engineer, or" He is Doctor Freud ”;when we explain social situations to another. This identification ­of actors is the precondition for corresponding social interaction.

Roles - rules for the action connected with especial statuses. We use them to interpret and generate social behavior. For example, the professor plays a role in a class room. Though, frequently we do not feel this role, the professor will stand, use a board, to give remarks, and to speak in little bit more formal expressions than usually. The professor does not drink beer during a lesson and does not use “rigid expressions”. These ­actions are inappropriate in a class room.

Most interaction is between persons who occupy positions (statuses) in groups or organisations in society. Interaction between people occurs thus to the account of their roles and memberships in especial groups or devices: their identities. As a parent, we speak with our children. As the spouse, we speak with the partner. As a member of an organisation we speak with the employer. An assumption and implication of the above is that any identity is always related to a corresponding counter-identity

People also belong to groups. Social groups - the organized groups of individuals. Social groups have some signs. People, who belong to them usually, recognize ­the collective membership and divide the group purposes. Groups also are organized internally to a certain extent. At last, participants groups usually contact each other. But, there are some groups of people of which we could think as group but which do not approach under this definition. People of middle class, for example, are population, but not social group because they do not co-operate, and not organized collectively.

Identity can also be defined by a different belongings to different Races and Ethnicities.

Races - this concept frequently is based on visible features (especially: colour of a skin, cranial or facial features and structure of hair) or physiological differentiation, and self-identifications. Therefore, some of scientists consider races as biologically based differentiation of the person. Many others assert that while racial classifications can be marked by phenotypic or genotypic lines, idea races is direct, and actual divisions of people on races, are social concept. Concepts races just as ways to group races, change culture and during long time, and it is frequent disputable on scientific just as to the social and political reasons. However, despite definition above, races it is often used to describe the whole amplitude other kinds of features which are not clearly or are not, in general are connected with biological features. For example people with racist biases can consider black people as less intellectual or more aggressive, or consider natives from Asia as inclined to mathematics. They, through their erroneous understanding, interpret that as biological features. Unfortunately such biases it is enough are extended, and the racial identity is frequently in some countries influences possibilities for acquisition of prestige and economic success.

The ethnic groups organized around certain and identical cultural heritage and therefore this concept support in itself exclusively cultural sense. In other words the ethnic adaptation is defined as group of people focusing in itself the general ethnic origin. It is the ethnic adaptation, is based on culture and also is much more dynamic and flexible. Ethnic feature therefore it something which can is studied and can change. But, that the ethnic adaptation - something studied, something cultural, does not mean, that it has less influences on people and has much stronger on them influence more likely.

Some groups are based on age, others, based on sexual differences. People also belong to different parties, are grouped in a trade, or; eventually, on interests of rest and free time carrying out.

Groups can be organized also in social hierarchy. The small inequality degree - a part of the most human interaction. One spouse can dominate over another; the child can receive more attention than his brothers on a birth; the boss can be more favorable to friends than other employees. But the inequality ­ becomes the most considerable when it regularly influences the whole classes of people. In more obvious form the inequality is shown as social stratification which is characterized regularly qualified unequal access to prospective economic ­ resources and prestige.

Anthropologists recognize at least two kinds of social stratification: class and caste. Class stratification limits access individual to valuable resources and prestige within partially flexible system. Though it is frequent - difficult process, some person can change a rank in class system if they operate ­to get necessary preconditions.

Caste defines the second kind of the social stratification, one based on constant ­membership. People are born in castes and cannot change membership regardless of the fact that they do. In India, for example, a caste is widespread feature of the organization ­of a society. Natives of Southern Asia are born in castes and remain in them for ever.

In comparison with identity–self is the concept considerably individually and also represents a set of private and our personal concepts of who we are and what we cost.

Many people consider self as the personal domain where we are who we are and that’s just that, and identity becomes hinge between self and culture, showing us what is expected of us and allowing our selves to gravitate towards it. More often we tend to think of ours self as outside of cultural processes in which we are brought up and live. We consider ours outlook, desires, believes perspectives on things often feel personal to us, beyond the influence of social factors. Therefore, we demand self as our own property, and we tend to think of it as which about what exceeds enculturation and experience. But, actually, we are all far more deeply produced from without than we may wish to admit.

Cultural Anthropology consider self as emerging out of the mind, the mind as arising and developing out of social interaction, and patterned social interaction as forming the basis of social structure The mind is the thinking part of the self. It is covert action in which the organism points out meanings to itself and to others. The ability to point out meanings and to indicate them to others and to itself is made possible by language, which encapsulates meanings in the form of symbols.

The main point of this process – self individualities-is reflexivity. People have an ability to behold. They qualify and estimate itself, that people - processual object , or how they accept themselves .Thus they are in process of self-knowledge and reflexivity, and it is сconstantly proceeding process.
In general, the self-concept is a whole set of values which we spend for us directly when we look at us. It is based on our supervision over us directly, our conclusions about the one who we, are based on as others operate and concern us, to our wishes and desires, and our estimations us . Self-concept who includes not only ours idealized representations and thoughts on that we, it is rather invariable, but also and our self-image or a working copy of our self-sights, that we import to situations and it is the subordinate to constant change and revision, depending on a situation.

Apply cultural analysis to a specific example in order to explore processes of identity and self formation.
Explain why your example analysis illustrates the anthropological approach to identity.

Obviously that culture, ethnicity or profession leaves on us indelible mark. But, formation human’s self - identity and feeling of an accessory to defined identity groups occurs frequently by tacit way. In this case original and deeper latent communication between self and identity is traced. Often our true interests lay far outside of ethnicity or occupation. These identity groups are quite often formed unconsciously and as though have no accurate names. But often the person realizes a deep belonging to them and feels special forces which connect people in these groups, even is sometimes much stronger than in standard identity groups. Besides we never identify itself only to one category, for example by a trade either on ethnicity or on political views. We always have multiple identity. The person as the individual is much more various and far not always keeps within any certain frameworks identity. In a following example I would like to show as it occurs.

My wife Iryna is very interesting person. She is registered nurse, and сertainly, the medical trade has left traces on its individuality and any events from our home life or from a life of our children it quite often considers from the medical point of view. On ethnicity (nationalities) it Byelorussian. Besides she is all-round developed person and has fine knowledge of the literature and art. It has fine character, she owns analytical mind and sense of humour. She is sociable and urbanistic person (she was born also and grew up in the big city of Belarus) and dialogue with people for her is very important. She loves a life in the big cities, likes to visit theatre, concerts, exhibitions and museums.

After arriving to the USA she was interested in how is it possible to confirm her trade. She met with the former Belarus nurses who work in the USA by a trade. But neither ethnicity, language, nor a trade have not led to supporting friendship or at least a superficial acquaintance with these people. Obviously that an accessory to listed identity groups has not given desired resultб , and they did not become friends and did not support acquaintance at all.

But, three months ago she started studying in Folsom Lake College and for short time she made acquaintance with interesting friends. Who are this people my wife maintains friendly relations with ? Who she is very interested to talk on a wide spectrum of subjects, whom she feels spiritual communication and is ready to share hers thoughts and desires? Strangely enough, it is people of absolutely diametrical and different cultures, and they have arrived from different countries.

Her first classmate has arrived to the USA from Iran. She is the Moslem on creed, and she is 40 years old, grew up in the big city and worked as the manager in a large firm. Now , she lives in her own house – she belongs to the middle class.

The second classmate – she got married to the rich American man and has arrived from China. She is on a nationality the Chinese woman, she is the Buddhist on creed, she is 37 years old, worked as the designer of clothes and grew up and has been taught in Shanghai. She lives in the house, in rich area – so, she belongs to higher middle class.

The third classmate of my wife – she is the Armenian on nationality, but has arrived to the USA from Georgia. On creed she belongs to Christianity, she is 42 years old, and worked as the chief accountant in the big city of Georgia. Now she is in a difficult financial position – the husband two years ago has suddenly died, and now she herself brings up the son. She lives in apartments.

As we see from above resulted data, if to consider traditionally, all these people belong to different identity groups. They have different language, ethnicity, trades and concern to different social classes, and it should seemed on these identity groups them nothing to unite (naturally, them unite only sex identity).

But , actually, I understood that them something strongly unite, and I have decided to do in this case Cultural Analyze and to find out the reason of it.

I have asked my wife to tell me in detail, what in addition she knows about her classmates. The additional information , which gave my wife , all has put on the places. It has appeared that all these women are not strongly religious, they have gotten various enough and good education, they not only understand cultures of their countries , but also cultures of other countries. They easily enough understand even political questions. All of them have positive mind, are not afraid of difficulties, are able to work persistently and have abilities to study; (now all of them successfully study English language in college). All of them have independent outlooks on life, and are able to put on with taste and also own sharp mind and fine sense of humor. All these women were born in the big cities and they like to live in the bustling big city. They love a city cultural life – visiting of theatres, concerts, exhibitions. So, they easily understand each other.

From above resulted, we can see that these women really united in the special identity group and at the base of them identity lays are such (I want sum up the basic characteristics):

- That they, naturally, women approximately of the same age.

- That they have got various enough and good education and have abilities to continue education and studying of language,

-They have the special type of thinking (analytical mind) and universal outlook on life.

- They are urbanized and are pleasant to live in the big cities, and they like city cultural life.

- They have independent outlooks on life and they are not closed in their religious frameworks.

- They are not afraid of difficulties of a new life and they are positive and optimistic adjusted, and have fine sense of humor.

Сultural anthropology gives us knowledge and good opportunity to understand the processes of identity and self formation , and this example of analysis illustrates the anthropological approach to identity. When we use cultural analysis in an opposite direction by studying artifacts and behavior, we do attempt to find out, what knowledge and values behind them. Given cultural analysis shows us how sometimes unusually can pass processes of identity and self formation and can be formed identity groups.

As societies round the world become big, and sometimes it is more difficult to identify groups. People can make the most part of the socialization in social networks, individual with which they regularly co-operate. Nevertheless, they are important because they can involve a part of social interaction individual. "The social disorder" also breaks interaction all over the world. People freely travel and enter into new social situations where cultivation completely is not divided. Individual can co-operate in set of various social situations every day. In this example I have tried to display it.

Establish your own perspective on how culture relates to identities and selves . Advanced Mastery Criteria : Evaluate the anthropological approach to studying identity. Use your example, or another example, to discuss the role of power in identity

We all are product of our culture. We have been formed by our realities and this process continues for all our life. My life experience gives me understanding how culture relates to identities and selves. I grew up in the USSR where communist ideology was some kind of subculture . Under this ideological press was formed our outlook, our cultural values and our identities . Ideology of communism tried to change culture of many people inhabited our country. The Soviet society was in essence sociocentric society where was not encouraged the human individuality in any form (Self). Since the early childhood we have grown up in the rigid ideological communistic environment. When we was seven years old, every schoolchild in elementary school had to enter at organization for young children, which was called "Octyabryata" and wore a badge of Red Star on our jacket. At the age of 10-11 years (middle school) all of us had to enter in youth the organization which was called “Soviet Pioneer” and carry red bandages on a neck (outwardly something similar to scout). At the age of 14 years we have been obliged to enter in Komsomol (the youth association of the Soviet Union for 14 to 26-year-old). All students at school should carry komsomol badges with the image of Lenin. It was the most powerful youth organization and almost exact copy of communist party of the USSR. If someone was not as member those organization he could not study at University or college or even to receive advancement on career in the future.

We know that Rites of passage – crucial places that gives us the chance to understand that it means – to belong to a certain category of identity, and studying rites of passage shows those qualities which required from certain social object.

Always, when us accepted in these organizations, we passed special communistic rites of passage. The first – we should study the organization charter for memory. Besides, we should have references from three members of the organization. Day of acceptance in members of the organization has always been organized as special ritual. Each of us has been dressed in the celebratory clothes and read an oath of fidelity to communism ideals before all members of the organization. All this ritual accompanied by singing of communistic songs and drumbeat. It is an example of that as step by step, the communistic mode, grouping us in the special organizations, tried to erase any individuality (self). Communists tried to generate from us new type of people or new group of people (identity) - “soviet people”.

Communistic Rites of Passage :

Fig #1 Admission to “Oktyabryata “

Fig.#2-4 Admission to “Soviet Pioneer”
"Soviet Oktyabryata" Badge (On a badge Lenin's image in the childhood)

"Soviet Pioneer's " Badge (On a badge Lenin's image)

Soviet Komsomol Badge(On a badge Lenin's image)

When I've done cultural analyze all these events: rites of passage or other rules of behaviors which were obligatory for members all of these organizations I has understood in what there was a main goal of communists – it was constructivist idea of depersonalization ours self-identity. We know that categorizing oneself in terms of the personal identity means seeing the self as distinct and different from others. The person is guided by her own goals rather than the group’s goals. Communists in the USSR did the activation of a social identity rather than a personal identity (self).This is the process of depersonalization, shifting the perception of the self from being unique toward the perception of the self as a member of a social category. The “Me” becomes a “We”. The person sees herself as the embodiment of the in-group prototype rather than as a unique individual. Though I think, depersonalization does not mean a loss of one’s personal identity completely, but rather a change in focus from the personal to the group basis of an identity.

02 April 2008

Language, Speech, and Discourse. Outcome #5 (Advanced Mastery Endevour)

Discuss the importance of analyzing the connections between language and culture.

We know that culture can be learnt and shared between people. But the most obvious and probably most important is that it carried out by means of language. Language and its relation to culture has key value for cultural anthropology. Language plays the major role in culture as it is primary transmission of the information and a management between people. But actually it not simple information interchange. This stronger effort by means of what we use language to influence outlook and actions of others.

I imagine that language is inseparable component of human culture. Besides, it is one of bases of human culture. I consider Language as an original matrix on which centuries had been put knowledge, concepts and beliefs by previous human civilizations. Further all this knowledge and belief is read out by the subsequent generations and in turn forms their culture. Thus language influences on the cultural environment.

Identify and explain one of the approaches to studying language

presented in the course material.

One of ways to comprehend communication between language and culture is Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Hypothesis Sapir-Whorf (SWH) - a hypothesis of a linguistic relativity — the concept developed in the thirties of the XX-th century according to which the language structure defines thinking and a way of knowledge of a reality. According to this hypothesis it is supposed, that the people speaking in different languages, differently perceive the world and differently think. In particular, the relation to such fundamental categories as the space and time, depends first of all on the native language of the individual. The author of the concept is Whorf; this concept was conformable to some sights of the largest American linguist of first half of XX-th century Sapir (rendering Whorf support) and consequently usually is called not as "hypothesis Whorf», but as «Sapir-Whorf hypothesis».

SWH asserts, that our realities are generated or defined by our language, and that it so strongly influences our intellectual processes, that we can test only the world in frameworks and dynamics which gives us language. SWH forces us to think of the language and culture power to generate our sight and perception us of the surrounding validity and thus to generate our lives. To put it briefly, language on which people speak, operates their sight of the reality; it defines their perception of the world. The Universe picture moves from language to language. There are at least two various versions SWH. Stronger and more linguistic version of the determinist assert, that the reality-is an ideological construct. The second and less determined version, asserts, that language shapes and influences our prospects of the reality.

Exists another approach language influences on the person which has more applied character - it is Speech Act Theory.

One of basic concepts Speech Act Theory is that -if we are speaking something , we are actually doing something. When we speak, we not only do statements, exchanging the information, but we also give commands, forming relations, basing expectations. The pronouncing manner plays a key constituent role in events. In other words, that people speak, can define a way by which events are developed. According to Speech Act Theory, language it is not simple action as it is accepted in the "classical" theory of speech acts , but also influence on the interlocutor, as finds reflexion in aspect of the speech act. In other words, it is possible to tell, that language not simply displays a word meaning but also can force to operate whom or under influence words. One of positions Speech Act Theory consists that minimum unit of human communications is not only the offer or the statement, but realization of a certain kind of acts, such, as ascertaining, a question, an order, the description, an explanation, an apology, gratitude, a congratulation etc.

Apply the approach you chose to an example.

I think, that Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and Speech Act Theory are extremely important and have practical application. That is, they represent not only abstract and or abstruse ideas. If we consider prospects of how words form us and our validity, words which we use in any given speech case, we see that they have much more importance. Investigating speech actions by strict and thoughtful way, we can penetrate and understand essence of other cultures and subcultures.

As I would like to present an example, how language can influence formation of the whole nations and the people, on example a country where I was born - Ukraine . On the given example we will see practical application Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - as language (in this case Russian) can influence change of mentality of millions people.

Ukraine is the multinational country . The share of ethnic Ukrainians makes 77,8 %, 17,3 % of ethnic Russian and 4,9 % representatives more than 130 various nationalities. Historically so has developed that in the west of Ukraine ethnic Ukrainians talk only in the Ukrainian language, in the central regions of Ukraine the population uses two languages-the-Ukrainian language and Russian in the daily use (bilingual). In the east of Ukraine though ethnic Ukrainians make 61 % of the population but they practically do not talk in the Ukrainian language – the basic language of dialogue is Russian.

In view of that, our country throughout centuries was war arena; different parts of Ukraine were under control of different empires. Ukraine as the independent country exists only 17 years. East regions and the center of the country during of centuries were under the severe control of Russian empire where any ethnic self-identity of Ukrainians was pursued and destroyed. Thus ethnic Ukrainians have been compelled to use Russian as in a life and as an official language. Russian language has taken roots in these regions. This circumstance has strongly affected culture and mentality of east Ukrainians. The western regions were under control and influence of Austria-Hungary and Poland. In difference from Russian Empire in Austria-Hungary Empire Ukrainians were authorized to use widely the language (universities, schools, newspapers, magazines) and they have kept language in daily use. In turn , it has given the chance to keep the culture. The obvious parallel is observed – in western and partially central regions the Ukrainian language has remained; therefore, the Ukrainian culture has remained also. Unlike it in east regions the culture of Ukrainians has undergone serious changes under the influence of Russian and accordingly under the influence of Russian culture. During the period since 1917 to 1939 year the Center and the East of Ukraine were under the control of the USSR when practically all schools, colleges and Universities used Russian of studying instead of Ukrainian language. Since 1939 year all territory present Ukraine has appeared under the control of the USSR and even in the Western regions the Ukrainian schools and other educational institutions it also were closed and has strengthened influence on mentality of ethnic Ukrainians.

Fig#1 Used language in Ukraine.

In times of the USSR , known representatives of culture, the Ukrainian literature and art were pursued , and even put in prison or sent to Siberia. The Ukrainian language was less used even in a daily life of Ukrainians. All it was very seriously influence on culture of Ukrainians, especially in east regions of the country where, substantially ,their mentality became similar with mentality of Russian.

On the next example we actually will see practical application the Speech Act Theory - that if we are speaking something , we are actually doing something.

Practical level of consideration which I would like to show it as interrelation language and cultures relates to the power. Ideology and propaganda - one way to investigate this communication between culture and the power. If language really forms our thoughts, actions and desires which we hear things and we speak, should make necessarily huge impact on us or associates. It happens in set of levels, from mutual relations between people through political speeches. Understanding of that process, as people use words to convince other people, always is in the centre of political and social scientific reflexion and research.

As discussion continuation, I would like to show as division on language of the Ukrainian nation have been used by unscrupulous politicians in last ( 2004year ) the presidential elective company in Ukraine.

The candidate for presidents from east regions (Yanukovych), having strong support of the Russian mass media (on all territory the east of Ukraine Russian television channels have been broadcasted without hindrance for all time of presidential election ), constantly tried to use methods of split of Ukraine and Ukrainians by a language principle. He was as the representative of interests of the large Russian capital and Russian mafia in Ukraine.As result elective propaganda enmity among western, central and east Ukrainians was sowed. Intentionally and constantly president candidate from the east focused attention in the performances about sharp difference of Ukrainians from the east and Ukrainians from the West. Eventually Yanukovych even has started to suggest to separate east and southern lands from Ukraine and to attach them to Russia.Such destructive as a matter of fact for the country ideology has put Ukraine on a split and disorder side. People in the east and the south of Ukraine in view of that they looked telecasts read newspapers only in Russian were intensively are subject to Russian propaganda, and for Yanukovych 44,20 % of voters have voted. Inherently , it was dangerous enough - that for the person which proclaimed separative speeches , has voted so many Ukrainians. But this fact specifies in that what strong influence of propaganda in a modern society and as language can strongly influence consciousness of people.

In the western regions where ethnic self-identity has remained, people supported the candidate for presidents from democrats–Yushchenko (for it 51,99 % of voters) have voted. In view of that they used Russian language a little, and Russian television propaganda influenced their consciousness a little. Their values have been generated and focused on Europe. It is a lot of people from the Western Ukraine went often for work in the European countries. Therefore it is a lot of from them understood the European languages (Italian, Spanish, German, Polish, анлийский).They often looked television channels which were broadcast from the European countries , or they looked only television channels on Ukrainian language. It has led to strong enough influence on their outlook. Finally people from the western land of Ukraine have in large quantities acted in democratic nonviolent protest actions when it became known about massive falsifications of elective process on the East lands of Ukraine where on governor's posts there were people of a mafia. In the subsequent they were supported by Ukrainians from the central regions of Ukraine and there was a known Orange Democratic Revolution and Ukraine when was won by democracy, and the candidate from democrats Yushchenko became the president.

Characteristic citations from the press of those times (2004):

If anybody represents an above-regional Ukrainian solidarity, it is clearly Yushchenko. He speaks proper Russian as well as Ukrainian and his being a native of one of Ukraine’s most eastern oblasts and having spent his student and working life in western as well as central Ukraine cannot be matched by Yanukovych, whose biography is strictly mono-regional and whose Ukrainian is not perfect.”

“It’s also not a much of a news item that Yanukovych managed to scare some Russian speakers. There’s no language on earth whose speakers he wouldn’t scare. It’s much more remarkable how Yushchenko’s campaign let itself be turned into a handy scarecrow for the same constituency. Even its main slogans weren’t translated. When people gather at pro-opposition rallies in strictly russophone cities, they can only make speeches in Russian, but their chants are all in Ukrainian. In a way, it’s been remarkable to see Ukrainian make the transition (in Ukrainian-Russians’ eyes) from its traditional place of a bumpkin cousin of Russian to the language of civic courage”

Fig #2 Official breakdown Ukraine's presidential vote.

As we see in this example there is as an overlaying and peculiar connection between Speech Act Theory and Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

On the one hand we see as Russian use has considerably changed consciousness of Ukrainians and their culture (this real confirmation Sapir-Whorf hypothesis which argues that our realities are shaped or determined by our Languages) On the other hand we see as elective propaganda (it as a matter of fact practical application Speech Act Theory - that in saying something we are actually doing something) has led to serious changes in consciousness of people as in the east and in the west of Ukraine. It in turn caused widespread actions of the protest - Orange Democratic Revolution.

Evaluate the approach you chose and relate it to your own perspective on language.

In fact , earlier, I looked at language enough simplified - as on a communication tool between people .But, after I have studied a material, I’ve tried to use it in practical application. As a result, mine perspective on language has strongly changed.

Even in the beginning of studying of this theme, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and Speech Act Theory to me seemed as abstract and a little applicable ideas in practice. But when I have started to study more deeply them , I have made for myself opening of those processes in consciousness of people that occurred in Ukraine. To me it became clear as language intensively influences and shape culture. Therefore, I have started to realize importance Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and Speech Act Theory. I have seen that they in general are extremely important and have practical application. I also have realized as influence elective propaganda and ideology on people , and that it can result to serious and drama events .