Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
The term serendipity describes the facility for encountering unexpected good luck as the result of accident general exploratory behavior or sagacity.
Law Of Attraction
Ukrainians as a nation has been formed back in ancient times. Ours primogenitors have started to create their culture far before the Christianity has arrived on our land, so our traditions and national elements were formed of old Ukrainian language, pre-Christian and Christian cultures. They became so merged with each other, that sometimes we cannot draw a delimitation line between pagan and Christian rituals. Ukraine has always had fertile soils which prevailed an agrarian way of life of its inhabitants. The whole human life has been presented a rhythm of seasons of work on the land , with holidays, marking change of works of a season.Winter holidays which Ukrainian people celebrate are Christmas (January, 7)., Shchedry vechir (Generous Evening), or the day of Melanka, or Old New Year (January, 13), and Vodokhreshche , and they symbolize people's hope for happiness and well-being.
There were times when Malanka was celebrated in practically all the villages and towns of
The Malanka carnival in Vashkivtsi is a very unique local tradition performed нere since ancient times. In the end 19-th century, during times when our city was as a part of Austro-Hungarian empire, this ancient tradition has received a new impulse thanking Count Petrino. He was former owner of the town. Despite the fact that he was not the Ukrainian , Count was a great admirer of old times and traditions . Thanks to him, our town Vashkivtsi dove into carnival on St. Basil’s Day. Men competed to create a suit, which would make the greatest impression to count most of all (to women have not allowed to change clothes as today). Generous master remunerated each command of participants in barrel of beer, and the owner of the best mask honored till next year.
Nowadays , Malanka reproduced as during times of Count Petrino, with traditional participants of ritual : beauty Malanka, its friend Vasyl, the Old Lady, the Goat, the Old man, Bears, Gypsies, Devils and Doctors. All have their duties: the Old man offers something to drink, the Old Lady sweeps the Devils out, and the Gypsy pulls behind itself the Bear on the chain. Each area Vashkivtsi has a command of Cossacks, Vulan (a kind of officer), typical for Bukovyna times of Austro-Hungarian empire, Bukshandar in a solemnity uniform and a hat with peacock feathers, and Malanka herself. From first three they choose the senior – Kalfa (they say, that this word derives from "caliph" since time when in 17 century Bukovyna was a part of
Irrespective of the fact how hard Soviet authorities have tried, but they were unable eradicate “this vestige of the past” which has remained despite all pressure to which Ukrainians have been subjected. It is very difficult to give Malanka (Preberia) a proper definition — it’s a sort of performance, the Ukrainian style which is so more old , than, that modern artists call “performance.”. It is festival of national humour and a spontaneous jocosity. It is the ritual which some parts defy a challenge to any explanation — ritual of such long history which it would be useless even to try to establish, when it has begun. There are some elements in it which assume, that festival Malanka (Preberia) can be thousand on thousand years.
In addition to name -Malanka, this fete of January 13 is often referred to as the Eve of Bounteous Gifts, Shchedrivka ("Generous Time") or Old New Year. In different parts of
The 13th of January for the Orthodox Christians is the day of St Melaniya the Roman, and the next day is that of Vasyl (Basil) the Great, one of the Church Fathers. These Christian holidays coincide in time with the solar cycles. It was at this time of the year that our heathen ancestors performed rituals to ensure plentiful crops, peace and well-being for every family. Similarly to the way it happened with other ancient pagan holidays, Malanka is a colourful merger of pagan and Christian traditions (in similar way, many other ancient pagan holidays merged with Christian holidays). And now there is absolutely no sacrilege in having Christian saints transformed by folk fantasy into cheerful and likable figures of the folk fete. The central personality in the celebrations is Malanka, “a girl with many natural endowments and of extraordinary beauty.” Who actually this Malanka girl was, and what she did to earn a public celebration, nobody knows for sure. All my enquires led to small result — except for some information that I procured from some old-timers according to whom the day of January 13-14 is day of St Malania as the Roman Martyr.
The role of Malanka is usually played by the witty young man of a cheerful character . As an image for imitation, he chooses the woman from town which she will be symbolic a parody, and then it does it in such a way as which all immediately recognize the original who is parodied. It because Ukrainians have such believe that Malanka is a clumsy girl — she inadvertently overturns things or sometimes destroy them , drops things, spills water; she also does some absurd things like whitewashing the furniture, and does other things that one should avoid doing. People believe that all this is done by Malanka to encourage us to be careful and diligent, and thus avoid being a laughingstock. Preparations for celebrating Malanka begin far before actual date. Suits and adaptations should be made, and it can occupy some time to make it. Some of these adaptations are amusing enough in themselves — for example, necklaces for Gypsies or other female characters can be made of a potato or beans; tails for those characters (goats) whom it is supposed to carry them, can have prickly sections to prick hands of who could have a desire to grasp and pull that tail. Sometimes this costumes are passed from one generation to another such as the bear skins, which were worn by those Malanka participants who played a role of bears many years ago . The strongest young men usually are chosen to play the role of the Bears who should protect Malanka , and be as her guard to defend her dignity.
In old times suits were made by male participants. Women only allowed to ornament suits of "Cossacks" and “Vulans”. The ancient techniques of manufacture of a suit not so difficult: a sheepskin coat, turned inside out, is the case of a bear, a sleeve, cut off from an old coat and sewn to “the body of a bear”, are paws. The chain was well-fastened to the body: because "bears" had to wrestle, and it would not do to see a paw slip under the chain. At the unique manufactures of masks also are deep traditions in Vashkivtsi. They have tried to make them so that nobody recognized the participant. Recognized and named should remove the masks in a shame.
In the evening before the Malanka night, young men put on all kinds of costumes. Some of them weird and intricate — Devils, Warriors, Witches, , Death, Jews, Gypsies, Hutsuls (as called highlanders from Ukrainian Carpathians), and representatives of other nationalities. All of these people in their masquerade clothes move from house to house performing their little amusement plays and improvisations for those who would care to see their performance. Malanka participants visit the first girls who have reached of the marriageable age, but house where someone has died within last year, they avoid. While Malanka is caroling, someone of her retinue makes some mischief, hiding things in the house, misplacing them, or overturning of things. But all should be made “in certain frameworks of decency” not to offend owners. After songs are sung, and jokes are told, the Malanka performers are treated to food and drink. When company Malanka leaves, good wishes are exchanged and sometimes fireworks are set off. They make very much hubbub, and in addition to music, they play applied jokes on people — but nobody gets harmed in any way. Well, the celebrants can attempt to kiss a beautiful girl, or do some insignificant detriment, but it’s all in jest.
Joyful and lively merrymaking begins with Malanka progressing through the town followed by crowds of people gaily and bizarrely attired . Their disguises grotesquely represent "soldiers," "musicians," "old women," "old men," "witches," "Jews," "medicine men," "Gypsies", and even "Grim Reaper" himself. The slowly moving procession stops once in a while and a sort of folk theatre performance begins, full of humour and improvisations. “Old women” in bright kerchiefs sweep the thresholds of houses, broad-shouldered “angels” greet drivers, and their wings, made from remnants of curtains, wave on tempo. Musicians accompany “devils” and “bears”, and youth in carnival costumes enact Robin Hood round-ups, stopping cars and fining drivers for soberness. The sombre figures of the procession look spooky but can scare only little children.
The participants follow the general lines but most of what they do is spontaneous improvisation: "bears" in a mock fight determine who is "the strongest"; "Gypsies" tell fortunes and exchange trinkets for horses; "the Jew" knows everything about everybody and tells people's secrets to all the other citizens . In fact, everybody becomes an actor of sorts. Songs, dances, funny stories and jokes (some of which are very risque) are part of the merrymaking which goes on from evening till the next morning. At about five or six in the morning, the participants return to their homes, sleep for several hours, and then the fete starts a new and lasts until the sunset.
Next day, in early afternoon, all the citizens gather in the centre of the town to see “the bear fight.” Participants in the “devils” mask push people who had gathered to all sides, cautiously using their lashes , only to clear a place of the improvised circle where there should pass a wrestling duel . Then to two "bears" that are represented by two various groups of supporters, and them let go into in the centre circle, and the start signal for struggle is given. Spectators cheer loudly and wildly . No punching or kicking is allowed — only fair struggle in which opponents place all force which they have. The winner in this competition of muscles is greeted as the true hero.
At the end of the second day of Malanka fete comes the Eve of Bounteous Gifts (or "Generous Evening"), with its lavish feast, mutual congratulations, expressions of best wishes , the good-wishes songs (schedrivky). People wish each other good health, good fortune. One wish is particularly important: good crops and plentiful yields. Young people and children move in groups from house to house, sing good-wishes songs, and are awarded smiles and generous gifts. The Generous Evening of Bounteous Gifts is in full swing…
So, the participants of Malanka-«Preberia» start walking across Vashkivtsi on midnight on January 13, and the ritual finishes on the next day by swimming in the local Teplytsia River (needless to say: it is freezing cold outside.) All with impatience the holiday outcome wait, after all even in severe frosts celebration finishes by bathing in the river, because the participants of the carnival have to bathe. According to folk legends, a devil’s tail can grow after two days of wild fun, so all sins should be washed away by water. They say that nobody gets sick after this icy swimming.
The holiday ends with the traditional bathing. Spectators in fur coats and kerchiefs look, charmed, at how the participants rub each others’ backs with icy water. They luxuriate in ice water, jump in it from running start, dive with a head directly in suits. Hooligans water spectators, in every possible way are trying somebody to bath. Heroes of «Preberia» flounder in water of one and a half hour, not having lost enthusiasm and ability to improvise — such kind of "walruses" lives only in Vashkivtsi Frost and winter has no power over humour and a thirst for life. Spring will come soon after Malanka. It is not too long a wait.
Certainly, inhabitants of our town piously follow ancient traditions, but culture of our people is in constant development and to old traditional suits and customs interesting enough new were added. The masks and characters that take part Malanka celebrations often reflect fresh current political events, and other recent happenings, or fads which occur not only in our country, but also in the world. Politicians or outstanding persons can be derided; masks and suits can deride or present stars of pop music, protagonists in popular films, or well-known TV presenters. Thus, two Malanka performances alike have never done - each of them will have its own distinctive features.
Holiday Malanka-Preberiya which I have carried out ethnographic research is the beautiful and bright cultural event. But despite the fact that I know it for a long time very well familiar with this tradition, in due time was interested in this holiday much, and even there was participant of these events, I have never known what underlies in basic of Pereberiya. Only after I have studied course Cultural Anthropology I have acquired knowledge how to carry out ethnographic research and cultural analysis.
We know that Ethnography - qualitative methodology of research and primary method within cultural anthropology. In ethnographic research are used interview, conversations, reviews, supervision, personal participation, video a tape-recording, and many other methods for acquisition and information registration. When I carried out research of HolidayMalanka–Preberiya, I recollected stories of our old residents (semiformal interview). In youthful and student's years I was even participant of this holiday (personal participation). Obviously that reasonable ethnographic subjective outlook is necessary for the researcher ; after all , it gives much enough clearness in confused situations. We know that every time when we do ethnographic field researches, and collect the information we should distinguish among three fundamental aspects of human experience: what people know what people do, and which things people do and use . As the method of deep understanding of things, the cultural analysis plays a key role in anthropology. Thus , I have made cultural analysis of Malanka (Pereberia ) Celebration in an opposite direction by studying artefacts (masks, clothes of participants ) and behaviour (lavish feast, good-wishes songs, jest, bathing in the cold river ) in attempt to find out, what cultural knowledge and values behind them.
As a result of aforementioned, I think that Ukrainian People ( inhabitants of our town)created this carnival Malanka-Preberia centuries ago in order (as a Cultural believe) – to ridicule life and social disadvantages and get rid of their coldest fears and it symbolize people's hope for happiness and well-being.
And meanwhile, go to Vashkivtsi to see an authentic Ukrainian carnival! How will the participants of Malanka amaze us next year? We will see it on January 13-14, 2009 year.
Bukovina Ukraine : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bukovina
Define sex and provide an example of a characteristic based in sex differences.
Sex – is the biological concept of being male or female. Physiological sexual differences between men and women can range from types of made gametes (different quantity X and Y chromosomes ) endocrine glands which produce different hormones, genitals, and sexual dimorphic bodies to more disputable and arguable claims based in a sex , which mean distinctions in a brain structure and individuality being based in sex dissimilarity. It is obvious, that distinctions on sex are given the person from a birth and the first that the doctor speaks to mother after a birth of the child, only have looked on external sexual features (the girl a-vagina, the boy - a penis) – “You have the girl!”, or ”You have the boy!”.
Both sex are similar on variety of physiological characteristics. At the same age boys and girls start to sit, go, at them a teeth is cut. But distinctions are much more. It is well –known fact that usually are born more boys than girls, but already by the end of the first year of a life their number is equalized, and then in all generations number of women steadily though in different percent, exceeds number of men. The man's brain weighs on 200 grammes more than the female. At men the sexual maturity attacks 2 years later, men on the average for 5 years die earlier. Men earlier become grey and bald, lose hearing faster and wearing glasses , at them clearness of coordination of movements earlier vanishes, memory worsens, and there are earlier problems with sex. Men are more difficult for calming and resulting in feelings. On the other hand, the left hemisphere (the formal logic) at men is developed better, and the man's hormone — testosterone — provides ability immediately to concentrate mind, feelings and will on a certain subject. Favourite colour of the man more often red — colour of a victory, and at women — blue — colour of harmony and reliability.
Dominance, aggression, resoluteness are considered as man's psychological properties, while tenderness, softness, bashfulness — female; though nobody undertakes to assert, that there are no bashful men and aggressive women. Certainly, there are the physiological processes which do not have analogues at an opposite sex, for example, pregnancy , but if there is a possibility to change sex or to make cloning in general there are no unequivocal signs, properties and the processes specifying in the defined sex. But, not looking at presence of signs of both sex at each person and the genetics and medicine achievement, each person in norm — either the man, or the woman
Define gender and provide an example of a characteristic based in gender differencesGender – cultural concept and socially based part of to be the man or the woman or another (the third gender, in some cultures). There are many cultural different types of men and women, such as gender identities, gender roles, gender belief, gender norms, and they can change from culture to culture. In our society today, men and women carry out clearly various roles which are based on nothing more than their biological differences. Though these roles do not remain for everyone individual, the majority of people live according to these extremely widespread roles.
Gender roles can be defined as a number of norms of behavior and characteristics which are standard for each gender in a society. Gender role stereotypes widely keep beliefs about those norms of behavior and characteristics, therefore stereotypes in the big degree become roles. The society compels people in certain roles simply by expecting, that those roles are inherent and leading to their execution. For example, the roles prevalent in our society prescribe that men should be domineering, aggressive, and superior at the math and sciences, should become successful in their careers, and should control and suppress their feelings. Women, on the other hand, should be obedient, nurturing, gentle, to be successful in languages and the humanities, emotional, and desirous of nothing more than a happy family and the husband to provide for her while it remains at home and is in charge of housekeeping.
Apply the concepts of sex and gender to at least one example.
The biological changes occurring in a body of the man, are gradual, barely to recognize and do not possess ability cardinally to change his life. The woman lives on internal clocks, which cannot be stopped and furthermore to bring. Unlike the man stages of their corporal changes revolutionary, are irreversible, and it cannot make later that did not in time at certain age (in culture it has found reflexion that «the first love», as a rule, is described as love of the man, and «last love» — love of the woman). Both sex estimate each other from the point of view of external appeal, but to the woman corporal appeal and furthermore the beauty or ugliness, has greater psychological value and the big social consequences, than for the man. Any problems of a corporality: abortion, virginity, pregnancy have for the woman not only physical, but also socially-psychological value. That is the corporality influences mentality and men and women, but the different corporality creates different problems.
. Nevertheless , we not simply are born boys and girls, but also we become them according to gender stereotypes penetrating a life in a civil society. The merits of case that we men and women not because we are born with certain bodies, but we men and women because in culture are present institute of the man and the woman, (including both sex, and gender). There are imitated courage and feminity … and thanks to that they are carried out again and again, man's and female again and are again reproduced. Gender role — a set of demanded and expected samples of behaviors for men and women.
Expectations and belief concerning correct distribution and execution of roles influence behavior of men and women. In any human society to different sexes children concern differently and wait from them for a specific mental constitution and behavior. The name, clothes, a hairdress, toys etc. underline this specificity. For instance, parents consider, that the boy should be: strong, active, constrained and successful; that the girl should be: fragile, tender, thrifty. Psychologists notice, that gender socialization gives to girls "roots", and boys — "wings". As already the first sight of parents at the child contains stereotypic installations so far as we do not know, what psychological lines are congenital, and what got. For example, it is known, that girls start to speak earlier, but there is it because, that mothers talk to girls, than with boys or because this genetically set property of women, is not known more. In any case parents appear the first samples of sexual behavior for the child, besides set and constantly reproduce stereotypic models of reactions and acts.
Sex/gender dichotomy is, definitely useful for our society because it allows to understand how much of the difference between men and women is based in natural, innate biological factors and how much of it is based in cultural factors. It allows people to understand each other easier, and to see in each person individuality and does not consider them as only sexual object. It also does people by more tolerant to different sexual orientations, so that is very important for modern society.
.In a modern science disputes between supporters which consider that almost all distinctions in behavior and motivation of men and women follow from genetics or biology laws, and those who considers, that a sex and all with it associating, have exclusively cultural and sociohistorical nature.
The biological view of gender roles and gender beliefs, states that the differentiated gender roles which exist in our society are the products of our evolution, and are inseparably connect with abilities conventional in one gender or the other which are determined biologically. The roles enjoin for each sex are based on physical abilities and properties of that sex, such as intellect, brain lateralization, and differing of sexual hormones levels. This faith was the widespread one throughout history, and has only lately been challenged. Implicit within this view is the belief that these roles are both desirous and incontrovertible. Ways with which this view could be proved, include looking on gender role similarities between animals and people, and investigative of sexual distinctions among infants. If, essential sexual role lines are found between animals and people, or if babies are actually found to show the lines traditionally appointed to their gender, it could specify to the fact, that such abilities and roles are biologically defined.
The statement, that sexual roles are biological and accordingly unchanging, can be rejected the simple evident fact, that sexual roles, even within our society, have changed and in process of changing. Women who as long trusted, were incapable to apply for "man's" trades (as examples are the policeman, the military man, truck driver) now successfully carry out the functions , and often they even is more professional than men. Let’s us to take other example : politics and the politicians where there were exclusively men earlier, but now we observe fast growth of quantity of women politicians which hold key posts in many countries. For example in
Establish your own position regarding the influence of sex/gender.
In my opinion, concept of sex and gender has extraordinary influence in our life. I would like to stop on gender stereotypes which have a main role in mutual relations of female and male. Stereotypes in thinking and understanding of the various phenomena of our life are congenital from all of us, but the unfaltering, and it seems to me essential, it is gender stereotypes
According to classical distribution of a role between the man and the woman , probably to tell that the man is directed on a gain of the world and the woman is directed on a gain of the man, which means a gain of the man's world and the man in this world. In the image stereotypic man qualities are, first, correlating with activity: the enterprise, aspiration to achievement of the purpose and on a competition, propensity to adventurism, resoluteness, inertia, bravery, self-examination, trust of forces, to desire to be the original, ability to be engaged in commerce. To women refuse in possession of these qualities - it is considered it passivity, indecision, care, care of observance of norms is more inherent, the conformism is attributed
Obviously that gender stereotypes are very unalterable and , therefore , take part in creation of system of social relations, more precisely, in designing of a gender order. Stereotypes not only establish an inequality- they justify it. In consideration of it is necessary to note one more basic function of gender stereotypes – legitimization of the power. Stereotypes should be proved constantly as authoritative relations, and also should be proved constantly.
On the one hand, we can consider that gender stereotypes is positive phenomenon. Obviously it is valid as a result of gradual acquisition moral gender stereotypes the person starts to understand faster relationship between gender, in it the established views not only about images of the man and the woman (characteristic moral qualities etc.) , but also and about those roles which the person and the woman should play at society. But on the other hand, too big gender stereotypification cause damaging effects. So , it is necessary to note that championed roles are restricting and damaging to all involved men and women similarly, since time when they are children. These views keep because our sexual roles are exclusively product of a society in which we live, and they are incompatible with the reality of individual persons and are painful and stressful for many people, and also hurt them as well as other forms of harassment and stereotyping.
Explain and examine the concepts of identity and self .
The cultural approach to self and identity begins with that that there is an inverse relationship between self and a society. Self influences a society through actions of individuals, thus creating groups, networks, and establishments. And, mutually, the society influences on self through its shared language and values which allow the person to take a role of another to participate in social interaction, and to reflect over as an object. This process reflexivity is the centre of individuality.
Identity it is often described as a recognition of its person or it is direct as a discrete entity . But, in cultural terms, this definition always incorporates with connection to some kind of group or a category of people is established in the cultural context. Thus, we are teachers and students; we are men and women; we are top, average or the lowest a class; we – collection of various categories of people who exist in our world. In this sense, process of an establishment of these categories, defining, that they mean, and then transfer to their people plays the critical role in terms of, how we come to understand us and our roles in the world.
Anthropological perspective of identity then, should explore the distinctive processes by which categories identity are generated and as people reach to be enclosed to them. We have concentrated on culture as on active process and we understand these categories as identification process instead of seeing these relations between us and identity as static and inevitable. For the majority of us, social interaction is not realized and automatic. We contact other people since time when we are born. The status and roles are the cores to social dialogue. The status addresses to categories of various kinds of people which co-operate. The majority of statuses names, thus we as can hear, speak things as, "He is President Ford," or "She is an engineer, or" He is Doctor Freud ”;when we explain social situations to another. This identification of actors is the precondition for corresponding social interaction.
Roles - rules for the action connected with especial statuses. We use them to interpret and generate social behavior. For example, the professor plays a role in a class room. Though, frequently we do not feel this role, the professor will stand, use a board, to give remarks, and to speak in little bit more formal expressions than usually. The professor does not drink beer during a lesson and does not use “rigid expressions”. These actions are inappropriate in a class room.
Most interaction is between persons who occupy positions (statuses) in groups or organisations in society. Interaction between people occurs thus to the account of their roles and memberships in especial groups or devices: their identities. As a parent, we speak with our children. As the spouse, we speak with the partner. As a member of an organisation we speak with the employer. An assumption and implication of the above is that any identity is always related to a corresponding counter-identity
People also belong to groups. Social groups - the organized groups of individuals. Social groups have some signs. People, who belong to them usually, recognize the collective membership and divide the group purposes. Groups also are organized internally to a certain extent. At last, participants groups usually contact each other. But, there are some groups of people of which we could think as group but which do not approach under this definition. People of middle class, for example, are population, but not social group because they do not co-operate, and not organized collectively.
Identity can also be defined by a different belongings to different Races and Ethnicities.
Races - this concept frequently is based on visible features (especially: colour of a skin, cranial or facial features and structure of hair) or physiological differentiation, and self-identifications. Therefore, some of scientists consider races as biologically based differentiation of the person. Many others assert that while racial classifications can be marked by phenotypic or genotypic lines, idea races is direct, and actual divisions of people on races, are social concept. Concepts races just as ways to group races, change culture and during long time, and it is frequent disputable on scientific just as to the social and political reasons. However, despite definition above, races it is often used to describe the whole amplitude other kinds of features which are not clearly or are not, in general are connected with biological features. For example people with racist biases can consider black people as less intellectual or more aggressive, or consider natives from Asia as inclined to mathematics. They, through their erroneous understanding, interpret that as biological features. Unfortunately such biases it is enough are extended, and the racial identity is frequently in some countries influences possibilities for acquisition of prestige and economic success.
The ethnic groups organized around certain and identical cultural heritage and therefore this concept support in itself exclusively cultural sense. In other words the ethnic adaptation is defined as group of people focusing in itself the general ethnic origin. It is the ethnic adaptation, is based on culture and also is much more dynamic and flexible. Ethnic feature therefore it something which can is studied and can change. But, that the ethnic adaptation - something studied, something cultural, does not mean, that it has less influences on people and has much stronger on them influence more likely.
Groups can be organized also in social hierarchy. The small inequality degree - a part of the most human interaction. One spouse can dominate over another; the child can receive more attention than his brothers on a birth; the boss can be more favorable to friends than other employees. But the inequality becomes the most considerable when it regularly influences the whole classes of people. In more obvious form the inequality is shown as social stratification which is characterized regularly qualified unequal access to prospective economic resources and prestige.
Anthropologists recognize at least two kinds of social stratification: class and caste. Class stratification limits access individual to valuable resources and prestige within partially flexible system. Though it is frequent - difficult process, some person can change a rank in class system if they operate to get necessary preconditions.
Caste defines the second kind of the social stratification, one based on constant membership. People are born in castes and cannot change membership regardless of the fact that they do. In
In comparison with identity–self is the concept considerably individually and also represents a set of private and our personal concepts of who we are and what we cost.
Many people consider self as the personal domain where we are who we are and that’s just that, and identity becomes hinge between self and culture, showing us what is expected of us and allowing our selves to gravitate towards it. More often we tend to think of ours self as outside of cultural processes in which we are brought up and live. We consider ours outlook, desires, believes perspectives on things often feel personal to us, beyond the influence of social factors. Therefore, we demand self as our own property, and we tend to think of it as which about what exceeds enculturation and experience. But, actually, we are all far more deeply produced from without than we may wish to admit.
Cultural Anthropology consider self as emerging out of the mind, the mind as arising and developing out of social interaction, and patterned social interaction as forming the basis of social structure The mind is the thinking part of the self. It is covert action in which the organism points out meanings to itself and to others. The ability to point out meanings and to indicate them to others and to itself is made possible by language, which encapsulates meanings in the form of symbols.
The main point of this process – self individualities-is reflexivity. People have an ability to behold. They qualify and estimate itself, that people - processual object , or how they accept themselves .Thus they are in process of self-knowledge and reflexivity, and it is сconstantly proceeding process.
In general, the self-concept is a whole set of values which we spend for us directly when we look at us. It is based on our supervision over us directly, our conclusions about the one who we, are based on as others operate and concern us, to our wishes and desires, and our estimations us . Self-concept who includes not only ours idealized representations and thoughts on that we, it is rather invariable, but also and our self-image or a working copy of our self-sights, that we import to situations and it is the subordinate to constant change and revision, depending on a situation.
Apply cultural analysis to a specific example in order to explore processes of identity and self formation.
Explain why your example analysis illustrates the anthropological approach to identity.
Obviously that culture, ethnicity or profession leaves on us indelible mark. But, formation human’s self - identity and feeling of an accessory to defined identity groups occurs frequently by tacit way. In this case original and deeper latent communication between self and identity is traced. Often our true interests lay far outside of ethnicity or occupation. These identity groups are quite often formed unconsciously and as though have no accurate names. But often the person realizes a deep belonging to them and feels special forces which connect people in these groups, even is sometimes much stronger than in standard identity groups. Besides we never identify itself only to one category, for example by a trade either on ethnicity or on political views. We always have multiple identity. The person as the individual is much more various and far not always keeps within any certain frameworks identity. In a following example I would like to show as it occurs.
But, three months ago she started studying in Folsom Lake College and for short time she made acquaintance with interesting friends. Who are this people my wife maintains friendly relations with ? Who she is very interested to talk on a wide spectrum of subjects, whom she feels spiritual communication and is ready to share hers thoughts and desires? Strangely enough, it is people of absolutely diametrical and different cultures, and they have arrived from different countries.
Her first classmate has arrived to the
The second classmate – she got married to the rich American man and has arrived from
The third classmate of my wife – she is the Armenian on nationality, but has arrived to the
As we see from above resulted data, if to consider traditionally, all these people belong to different identity groups. They have different language, ethnicity, trades and concern to different social classes, and it should seemed on these identity groups them nothing to unite (naturally, them unite only sex identity).
But , actually, I understood that them something strongly unite, and I have decided to do in this case Cultural Analyze and to find out the reason of it.
I have asked my wife to tell me in detail, what in addition she knows about her classmates. The additional information , which gave my wife , all has put on the places. It has appeared that all these women are not strongly religious, they have gotten various enough and good education, they not only understand cultures of their countries , but also cultures of other countries. They easily enough understand even political questions. All of them have positive mind, are not afraid of difficulties, are able to work persistently and have abilities to study; (now all of them successfully study English language in college). All of them have independent outlooks on life, and are able to put on with taste and also own sharp mind and fine sense of humor. All these women were born in the big cities and they like to live in the bustling big city. They love a city cultural life – visiting of theatres, concerts, exhibitions. So, they easily understand each other.
From above resulted, we can see that these women really united in the special identity group and at the base of them identity lays are such (I want sum up the basic characteristics):
- That they, naturally, women approximately of the same age.
- That they have got various enough and good education and have abilities to continue education and studying of language,
-They have the special type of thinking (analytical mind) and universal outlook on life.
- They are urbanized and are pleasant to live in the big cities, and they like city cultural life.
- They have independent outlooks on life and they are not closed in their religious frameworks.
- They are not afraid of difficulties of a new life and they are positive and optimistic adjusted, and have fine sense of humor.
Сultural anthropology gives us knowledge and good opportunity to understand the processes of identity and self formation , and this example of analysis illustrates the anthropological approach to identity. When we use cultural analysis in an opposite direction by studying artifacts and behavior, we do attempt to find out, what knowledge and values behind them. Given cultural analysis shows us how sometimes unusually can pass processes of identity and self formation and can be formed identity groups.
As societies round the world become big, and sometimes it is more difficult to identify groups. People can make the most part of the socialization in social networks, individual with which they regularly co-operate. Nevertheless, they are important because they can involve a part of social interaction individual. "The social disorder" also breaks interaction all over the world. People freely travel and enter into new social situations where cultivation completely is not divided. Individual can co-operate in set of various social situations every day. In this example I have tried to display it.
Establish your own perspective on how culture relates to identities and selves . Advanced Mastery Criteria : Evaluate the anthropological approach to studying identity. Use your example, or another example, to discuss the role of power in identity
We all are product of our culture. We have been formed by our realities and this process continues for all our life. My life experience gives me understanding how culture relates to identities and selves. I grew up in the
We know that Rites of passage – crucial places that gives us the chance to understand that it means – to belong to a certain category of identity, and studying rites of passage shows those qualities which required from certain social object.
Always, when us accepted in these organizations, we passed special communistic rites of passage. The first – we should study the organization charter for memory. Besides, we should have references from three members of the organization. Day of acceptance in members of the organization has always been organized as special ritual. Each of us has been dressed in the celebratory clothes and read an oath of fidelity to communism ideals before all members of the organization. All this ritual accompanied by singing of communistic songs and drumbeat. It is an example of that as step by step, the communistic mode, grouping us in the special organizations, tried to erase any individuality (self). Communists tried to generate from us new type of people or new group of people (identity) - “soviet people”.
Communistic Rites of Passage :
Fig #1 Admission to “Oktyabryata “
"Soviet Pioneer's " Badge (On a badge Lenin's image)Soviet Komsomol Badge(On a badge Lenin's image)
When I've done cultural analyze all these events: rites of passage or other rules of behaviors which were obligatory for members all of these organizations I has understood in what there was a main goal of communists – it was constructivist idea of depersonalization ours self-identity. We know that categorizing oneself in terms of the personal identity means seeing the self as distinct and different from others. The person is guided by her own goals rather than the group’s goals. Communists in the
Discuss the importance of analyzing the connections between language and culture.
We know that culture can be learnt and shared between people. But the most obvious and probably most important is that it carried out by means of language. Language and its relation to culture has key value for cultural anthropology. Language plays the major role in culture as it is primary transmission of the information and a management between people. But actually it not simple information interchange. This stronger effort by means of what we use language to influence outlook and actions of others.
I imagine that language is inseparable component of human culture. Besides, it is one of bases of human culture. I consider Language as an original matrix on which centuries had been put knowledge, concepts and beliefs by previous human civilizations. Further all this knowledge and belief is read out by the subsequent generations and in turn forms their culture. Thus language influences on the cultural environment.
Identify and explain one of the approaches to studying language
presented in the course material.
One of ways to comprehend communication between language and culture is Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
Hypothesis Sapir-Whorf (SWH) - a hypothesis of a linguistic relativity — the concept developed in the thirties of the XX-th century according to which the language structure defines thinking and a way of knowledge of a reality. According to this hypothesis it is supposed, that the people speaking in different languages, differently perceive the world and differently think. In particular, the relation to such fundamental categories as the space and time, depends first of all on the native language of the individual. The author of the concept is Whorf; this concept was conformable to some sights of the largest American linguist of first half of XX-th century Sapir (rendering Whorf support) and consequently usually is called not as "hypothesis Whorf», but as «Sapir-Whorf hypothesis».
SWH asserts, that our realities are generated or defined by our language, and that it so strongly influences our intellectual processes, that we can test only the world in frameworks and dynamics which gives us language. SWH forces us to think of the language and culture power to generate our sight and perception us of the surrounding validity and thus to generate our lives. To put it briefly, language on which people speak, operates their sight of the reality; it defines their perception of the world. The Universe picture moves from language to language. There are at least two various versions SWH. Stronger and more linguistic version of the determinist assert, that the reality-is an ideological construct. The second and less determined version, asserts, that language shapes and influences our prospects of the reality.
Exists another approach language influences on the person which has more applied character - it is Speech Act Theory.
One of basic concepts Speech Act Theory is that -if we are speaking something , we are actually doing something. When we speak, we not only do statements, exchanging the information, but we also give commands, forming relations, basing expectations. The pronouncing manner plays a key constituent role in events. In other words, that people speak, can define a way by which events are developed. According to Speech Act Theory, language it is not simple action as it is accepted in the "classical" theory of speech acts , but also influence on the interlocutor, as finds reflexion in aspect of the speech act. In other words, it is possible to tell, that language not simply displays a word meaning but also can force to operate whom or under influence words. One of positions Speech Act Theory consists that minimum unit of human communications is not only the offer or the statement, but realization of a certain kind of acts, such, as ascertaining, a question, an order, the description, an explanation, an apology, gratitude, a congratulation etc.
Apply the approach you chose to an example.
I think, that Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and Speech Act Theory are extremely important and have practical application. That is, they represent not only abstract and or abstruse ideas. If we consider prospects of how words form us and our validity, words which we use in any given speech case, we see that they have much more importance. Investigating speech actions by strict and thoughtful way, we can penetrate and understand essence of other cultures and subcultures.
As I would like to present an example, how language can influence formation of the whole nations and the people, on example a country where I was born - Ukraine . On the given example we will see practical application Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - as language (in this case Russian) can influence change of mentality of millions people.
In view of that, our country throughout centuries was war arena; different parts of
In times of the
On the next example we actually will see practical application the Speech Act Theory - that if we are speaking something , we are actually doing something.
Practical level of consideration which I would like to show it as interrelation language and cultures relates to the power. Ideology and propaganda - one way to investigate this communication between culture and the power. If language really forms our thoughts, actions and desires which we hear things and we speak, should make necessarily huge impact on us or associates. It happens in set of levels, from mutual relations between people through political speeches. Understanding of that process, as people use words to convince other people, always is in the centre of political and social scientific reflexion and research.
As discussion continuation, I would like to show as division on language of the Ukrainian nation have been used by unscrupulous politicians in last ( 2004year ) the presidential elective company in
The candidate for presidents from east regions (Yanukovych), having strong support of the Russian mass media (on all territory the east of
In the western regions where ethnic self-identity has remained, people supported the candidate for presidents from democrats–Yushchenko (for it 51,99 % of voters) have voted. In view of that they used Russian language a little, and Russian television propaganda influenced their consciousness a little. Their values have been generated and focused on
Characteristic citations from the press of those times (2004):
“If anybody represents an above-regional Ukrainian solidarity, it is clearly Yushchenko. He speaks proper Russian as well as Ukrainian and his being a native of one of Ukraine’s most eastern oblasts and having spent his student and working life in western as well as central Ukraine cannot be matched by Yanukovych, whose biography is strictly mono-regional and whose Ukrainian is not perfect.”
“It’s also not a much of a news item that Yanukovych managed to scare some Russian speakers. There’s no language on earth whose speakers he wouldn’t scare. It’s much more remarkable how Yushchenko’s campaign let itself be turned into a handy scarecrow for the same constituency. Even its main slogans weren’t translated. When people gather at pro-opposition rallies in strictly russophone cities, they can only make speeches in Russian, but their chants are all in Ukrainian. In a way, it’s been remarkable to see Ukrainian make the transition (in Ukrainian-Russians’ eyes) from its traditional place of a bumpkin cousin of Russian to the language of civic courage”
Fig #2 Official breakdown Ukraine's presidential vote.
As we see in this example there is as an overlaying and peculiar connection between Speech Act Theory and Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
In fact , earlier, I looked at language enough simplified - as on a communication tool between people .But, after I have studied a material, I’ve tried to use it in practical application. As a result, mine perspective on language has strongly changed.
Even in the beginning of studying of this theme, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and Speech Act Theory to me seemed as abstract and a little applicable ideas in practice. But when I have started to study more deeply them , I have made for myself opening of those processes in consciousness of people that occurred in